The most immediate threats to the security of vulnerable people derive from unmet economic and health needs, political exclusion, denied rights, social and political disintegration, and the criminal and political violence that accompany conditions of chronic insecurity.
This means that security preparedness involves much more than military strength. A comprehensive approach to international peace and security requires attention to and funding for the following five elements (what we call the 5Ds):
Development - Measures to end poverty that address the essential underlying causes of humanitarian emergencies and create economic conditions that are conducive to sustainable human security;
Democracy - Measures to promote good governance that emphasize political inclusiveness and participation, as well as respect for human rights;
Disarmament - Measures to prevent the transformation of political conflict into armed conflict by limiting the availability of weapons;
Diplomacy - Engagement in multilateral efforts toward the prevention on armed conflict; the peaceful management of political conflict; the development of a rules-based international order; and the promotion of development, democracy and disarmament;
Defence - The capacity to resort to th use of force in extraordinary circumstances in support of the full range of peace and security efforts, i.e., the other four D's, including protection ad compliance.
As defined by the United Nations, the Culture of Peace is a set of values, attitudes, modes of behaviour and ways of life that reject violence and prevent conflicts by tackling their root causes to solve problems through dialogue and negotiation among individuals, groups and nations (UN Resolutions A/RES/52/13 : Culture of Peace and A/RES/53/243, Declaration and Programme of Action on a Culture of Peace).
For peace and nonviolence to prevail, we need to:
- foster a culture of peace through education,
- promote sustainable economic and social development,
- promote respect for all human rights,
- ensure equality between women and men,
- foster democratic participation,
- advance understanding, tolerance and solidarity,
- support participatory communication and the free flow of information and knowledge, and
- promote international peace and security.